Rosa Guy was born on September 1, 1925 in Trinidad. Later her family moved to Harlem, New York where they died when Rosa was very young. During World War II Rosa she was a part of the American Negro Theatre. She attended New York University where she studied theater and writing. In 1950, Guy, along with John Oliver Killens, Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Willard Moore and Walter Christmas, co-founded the Harlem Writer’s Guild. Guy was a member of a Black nationalist literary organization, On Guard for Freedom, which was founded on the Lower East Side of New York City by Calvin Hicks. Other members included, Harold Cruse and LeRoi Jones. On Guard was active in a famous protest at the United Nations of the American-sponsored Bay of Pigs Cuban invasion and was active in support of the Congolese liberation leader Patrice Lumumba.